What is Dementia/ Alzheimers?


Dementia is the term used to describe disablement of two brain functions, such as memory loss and judgement, symptoms includes forgetfulness, limited thinking abilities, reasoning, and confusion to such an extent it intervene with a person’s daily life activities. Having memory loss alone does not mean you have dementia, but it points out one of the early signs of the condition. Dementia is more common as people grow older. WHO estimates that more than 55 million people around the world are living with dementia. There are several different forms of Dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease symptoms can vary depending on the type.

What are the signs and symptoms of Dementia

Signs of Dementia can vary, it is the result when healthy nerve cells or neurons in the brain stop working, lose connections with other cells and die or in other words abnormal brain changes or damage. People with Dementia loses greater loss of neurons than others when they age. There are different stages to look on to dementia namely early, progressive and advance. It is easy to look on the early stage symptoms which is forgetfulness, short term memory, keeping track of purse or wallet ,car key ,paying bills, losing your way in familiar settings, keep on time for appointments. Coming to the progressive symptoms more confusion, frequent forgetfulness, repetitive questioning, poor decision making, losing interest in normal daily routine. Advance symptoms are change in behaviour, depression, aggression, difficulty in remembering people and familiar places, unable to care for themselves, difficulty in speaking, losing balance and problems with movement Many conditions are progressive, signs shows it start slowly and gradually get worse. Early diagnosis allows you to get better professional treatment. It’s important to consider a person’s current abilities and to monitor for changes over a period that could signal dementia.

Causes of Dementia

The damage caused to the brain cells, when brain cells cannot communicate to normal thinking, behaviour patterns, feelings all effects your life cycle. If the cells   in a particular region affected that region cannot carry the functions. Many conditions can cause dementia, including degenerative diseases called Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Huntington’s. Other causes of dementia include depression, stroke, vascular diseases, chronic drug use, thyroid problems, and excess use of alcohol.

Types of Dementia

Alzheimer’s, the most common dementia diagnosis among older adults. It causes by changes in the brain. Mixed Dementia combination of two or more types of dementia. Most common is vascular dementia with Alzheimer’s disease. This combination can be seen 22%of older adults. Vascular Dementia a form of dementia caused by conditions that damage blood vessels in the brain or intervene the flow of blood and oxygen to the brain. Often related to stroke. Lewy Body Dementia a form caused by abnormal deposits of the protein in your nerves that disrupt electrical signals. Symptoms such as thinking, confusion, and changes in the movement patterns. Frontotemporal Dementia conditions characterized by loss of brain functioning the part of your brain near your forehead or behind your ears. Behavioural changes are the symptoms. Other conditions such as stress, anxiety, depression, delirium can cause serious memory problems that resemble dementia, can side effects of certain medicines.

How is Dementia Diagnosed

Physical test to examine the blood pressure and other vital signs, laboratory test of hormones, check the level of various chemical fluid and vitamins as well as neurological tests, brain scan, genetic test, psychiatric test and evaluation, blood test.


A progressive disease that destroys memory and other mental functions. Brain cells connections and the cells themselves degenerate and die, eventually destroying memory and other important mental abilities. Alzheimer’s is the most common cause for Dementia. Alzheimer’s disease gets worse as age and time pass by and affects memory, thought and language. Younger people may get but generally been seen age of 65 and above. Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive form of dementia. There is no cure for this disease but the treatment can slow the progression of the disease.

Signs and Symptoms

One of the common signs of Alzheimer’s disease is forgetting newly or recently learned information. Other signs forgetting dates, repeating the questions. Symptoms are usually progressive over time. Symptoms associated with Alzheimer’s are often described as stages or phases, mentioning the ongoing degenerative nature of disease. The other symptoms include memory loss that disrupts the daily activities, challenges in planning or solving problems especially with numbers, difficulty in concentrating, difficulty in completing familiar task, confusion with time and place, problem with words and conversations to complete, misplacing things  and losing  the ability to retrace, withdrawal from work and social activities, change in mood and personality.


It is not a single cause for Alzheimer’s disease there are multiple factors such as genetics, environment, age, family history and lifestyle. Other risk factors that are able to identify is head injury, heart head connection. Brain is nourished with blood vessels, heart is responsible for pumping blood to these vessels and to the brain. The risk of developing vascular dementia {Alzheimer’s disease) appears to be increased by this condition of heart and blood vessel damage. Three stages can be classified mild (early), moderate (middle) and severe (late) Alzheimer’s. Early stage patient may function independently, symptoms may not be widely apparent at this stage but family and friends may notice so that doctor may be able to identify using diagnostic tools. Some difficulty like coming up with right word, remembering names, forgetting things, misplace or losing things, problem with planning or organizing. Next one is middle stage mainly longest stage last for long many years. Patient may require care as it prolongs. Symptoms are pronounced person may confuse words get angry, frustrated, to perform daily activities needs help. Confusion, feeling moody, withdrawn from social activities, tendency to become wander and lost, unable to recall information and personal history also behavioural changes . Late stage that is final dementia symptoms are severe experiencing physical changes walking, sitting, swallowing difficulty, difficulty in communicating, lose awareness of surrounding and recent experience. At this stage caregiver use support service such as Hospice care, promoting comfort and dignity to the end of life.

How is Alzheimer’s diagnosed

Doctor may use medical history, mental status test, physical and neurological exams, diagnostic test and brain imaging. There is no cure for this disease, treatment may change the disease progression.